Marmoset Brain Architecture


Supplementary material
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Neuronal density across the entire cerebral cortex of the marmoset monkey

Nafiseh Atapour, Piotr Majka, Ianina H. Wolkowicz, Daria Malamanova, Katrina H. Worthy and Marcello G.P. Rosa

Using stereological analysis of NeuN-stained sections, we investigated neuronal density in 116 cytoarchitectural areas of the marmoset cortex. Our results revealed that estimates of average neuronal density encompassed a greater than threefold range, from a maximum (>150,000 neurons/ mm3) in the primary visual cortex to a minimum (~50,000 neurons/ mm3) in the piriform complex. In agreement with previous studies, there was a trend for density values to decrease from posterior to anterior cortical areas, but we also observed significant local gradients, which added complexity to this pattern. For example, in the frontal lobe, neuronal density was lowest among motor and premotor areas, and increased towards the frontal pole. Likewise, in both auditory cortex and somatosensory areas, it increased from caudal to rostral subdivisions. In general, anterior cingulate, insular and ventral temporal proisocortical and periallocortical areas were characterized by low neuronal densities. Analysis across the thickness of the cortex revealed greater laminar variation in occipital, parietal and inferior temporal areas, in comparison with other regions. These results are compatible with a common pattern of variation in neuronal density among primates, and suggest that neuronal density values in the adult cortex result from a complex interaction of developmental/evolutionary determinants and functional requirements.

Table of content
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
Area 10 of cortex Area 9 of cortex Area 46 of cortex, ventral part
Area 46 of cortex, dorsal part Area 8a of cortex, dorsal part Area 8b of cortex
Area 8a of cortex, ventral part
Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
Area 47 (old 12) of cortex, lateral part Area 47 (old 12) of cortex, medial part Area 45 of cortex
Area 47 (old 12) of cortex, orbital part Proisocortical motor region (precentral opercular cortex)
Orbitofrontal cortex
Area 11 of cortex Area 13b of cortex Area 13a of cortex
Area 13 of cortex, lateral part Area 13 of cortex, medial part Orbital periallocortex
Orbital proisocortex Gustatory cortex
Medial prefrontal cortex
Area 32 of cortex Area 32 of cortex, ventral part Area 14 of cortex, rostral part
Area 14 of cortex, caudal part Area 25 of cortex Area 24a of cortex
Area 24b of cortex Area 24c of cortex Area 24d of cortex
Motor and premotor cortex
Area 6 of cortex, dorsorostral part Area 6 of cortex, ventral, part b Area 6 of cortex, ventral, part a
Area 8 of cortex, caudal part Area 6 of cortex, medial (supplementary motor) part Area 6 of cortex, dorsocaudal part
Area 4 of cortex, part c (primary motor) Area 4 of cortex, parts a and b (primary motor)
Insula and rostral lateral sulcus cortex
Parainsular cortex, medial part Agranular insular cortex Parainsular cortex, lateral part
Dysgranular insular cortex Granular insular cortex Insular proisocortex
Temporal proisocortex
Somatosensory cortex
Secondary somatosensory cortex, parietal rostral area Area 3a of cortex (somatosensory) Secondary somatosensory cortex, parietal ventral area
Area 3b of cortex (somatosensory) Secondary somatosensory cortex, internal part Secondary somatosensory cortex, external part
Areas 1 and 2 of cortex
Auditory cortex
Rostrotemporal lateral area Rostrotemporal area Rostral parabelt area
Rostrotemporal medial area Rostral auditory area Rostromedial area
Anterolateral area Primary auditory area Caudomedial area
Caudal parabelt area Middle lateral area Caudolateral area
Lateral and inferior temporal cortex
Temporopolar proisocortex Superior temporal rostral area (cortex) Temporal area te1
Temporo-parieto-occipital association area Retroinsular area (cortex) Temporal area te2
Area PGa and IPa (fundus of superior temporal ventralarea) Temporoparietal transitional area Temporal area te3
Temporal area te, occipital part
Ventral temporal cortex
Piriform cortex Amygdalopiriform transition area Entorhinal cortex
Area 36 of cortex Area 35 of cortex Temporal area TF
Temporal area TL Temporal area TH temporal area TL, occipital part
Temporal area TF, occipital part
Posterior cingulate, medial and retrosplenial cortex
Area 23c of cortex Area 23a of cortex Area 29d of cortex
Area 30 of cortex Area 23b of cortex Area 29a-c of cortex
Area 23 of cortex, ventral part Prostriate area
Posterior parietal cortex
Parietal area pf (cortex) Parietal area pe Parietal area pfg (cortex)
Area 31 of cortex Anterior intraparietal area of cortex Parietal area pg
Parietal area pe, caudal part Ventral intraparietal area of cortex Lateral intraparietal area of cortex
Parietal area pg, medial part (cortex) Visual area 6a (posterior parietal medial area) Occipito-parietal transitional area of cortex
Medial intraparietal area of cortex
Visual cortex
Medial superior temporal area of cortex Fundus of superior temporal sulcus area of cortex Visual area 5 (middle temporal area)
Visual area 4, transitional part (middle temporal crescent) Area 19 of cortex, medial part Visual area 3a (dorsoanterior area)
Visual area 4 (ventrolatereral anterior area) Visual area 6 (dorsomedial area) Area 19 of cortex, dorsointermediate part
Visual area 3 (ventrolateral posterior area) Visual area 2 Primary visual cortex